Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Allahu Akbar as part of Salat and as Battle cry

Lane's Lexicon and Other Sources
Lane's Lexicon, the most revered and scholarly dictionary of the Arabic language, confirms the majority view is that "Allahu Akbar" refers to Allah being "greater". Unlike in its early years, so does Wikipedia, stating the phrase literally mean "God is greater" but is usually translated "God is [the] Greatest," or "God is Great". Similarly, Pierre Tristam, the Lebanese-American About.com Guide states, although most often translated as "god is great," Allahu Akbar is Arabic for "god is greater" or "god is greatest."
Many Muslims and their apologists claim "Allahu Akbar" is simply the Arabic translation of a common English phrase meaning "God is great!" However, this is untrue. "Allahu Akbar" does not mean "God is great" as claimed. It actually means "Allah is greater." This is shown by applying basic Arabic where great is kabir, greater is akbar and greatest is Alkabir. As such the real name of Allah if it is to be applied is Allah Alkabir and not Allah u Akbar.
"Allahu Akbar" has been used historically by Muslims as a battle cry during war. This precedent is believed was set by Prophet Muhammad when he attacked the Jews of Khaibar. However this battle cry is under suspicion as it is not found in the Quran and the Prophet will not overruled any command of Allah if it can be found in the Quran.
Claim by the proponents on Allah u Akbar.
They claimed that Allah never limit His names to the ones in the Quran, on the contrary, God is teaching us that every beautiful name belongs to Him, being, Kabeer, Al-Kabeer, Al-Mutakabber, Akbar or Al-Akbar. His names can be found in and out of the Quran. They also claimed that since “Akbar” is a word in the Quran therefore it can be used to describe as Allah’s Name. The command in the Quran at Surah 2:185, 17:111, 22:37, and 74:3 is to "KABBER" meaning to magnify or glorify God. Thus pronouncing Allahu Akbar is not wrong. "Takbeerah" as a noun and in the singular form is the statement "ALLAHU AKBAR". One may claim that this meaning is acquired from the traditional use but no one can prove it is not the right meaning either. The command in Surah 17:111, for example, to "KABBER TAKBEERA" is to say ALLAHU AKBAR. They claimed that if one is using the verb "KABBER" for other than religious reasons, it would mean to magnify or make bigger. To "KABBER" anything is to make it AKBAR. One does not make it Al-Kabeer and since Quran is an Arabic Quran, the relationship of the verb Kabber, in relation to God, and to its actual daily life use cannot be ignored or disregarded.
Surah 17:111  "And proclaim: "Praise be to GOD, who has never begotten a son, nor does He have a partner in His kingship, nor does He need any ally out of weakness," and MAGNIFY Him constantly (KABBER-HO TAKBEERA)."
However the command in the Quran to takbeer is make Him “The Greatest” not greater.
In the following verse God commanded the Prophet to call upon Him by His most beautiful Names and the Most Beautiful Names were that which He has designed for Himself and has given authority. These names which He authorized can only be found in the Quran and the Prophet is obliged to call upon Him by those names. Allahu Akbar is not listed as one of His good names:
Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon AlRahman: by whatever name ye call upon Him, (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Neither speaks thy prayer aloud, nor speaks it in a low tone, but seek a middle course between." (Surah 17:110)
The use of the word Akbar do not apply to His good Names
All the word “akbar” in the Quran does not subscribed to His good names but is used to describe His other attributes. The following verses of the Quran shows some examples of the word akbar but it is not related to His good Names or the manner in which one is to call upon Him, it is not a way to magnify Him.
Akbar here is not to magnify Him but is related to witnessing
Say: "What thing is most weighty (akbar) in evidence?" Say: "Allah is witness between me and you; This Qur'an hath been revealed to me by inspiration, that I may warn you and all whom it reaches. Can ye possibly bear witness that besides Allah there is another Allah?" Say: "Nay! I cannot bear witness!" Say: "But in truth He is the one Allah, and I truly am innocent of (your blasphemy of) joining others with Him." (Surah 6:19)
Akbar here is related to His good pleasure not to magnify Him
Allah hath promised to the believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein, and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss. But the greatest (akbar) bliss is the good pleasure of Allah: that is the supreme felicity. (Surah 9:72)
Akbar below is to remember Allah is the greatest but not to magnify Him
Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular prayer: for prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (akbar) (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. (Surah 29:45)
Akbar below show the aversion of Allah is not a way to magnify Him
The Unbelievers will be addressed: "Greater (akbar) was the aversion of Allah to you than (is) your aversion to yourselves, seeing that ye were called to the Faith and ye used to refuse."
(Surah 40:10)
Akbar below is to describe His punishment not as a way to magnify Him
Allah will punish him with a mighty (akbar) punishment (Surah 88:24)
In the message of Prophet Ibrahim’s case the use of akbar is in comparing things we can see but it cannot be apply to magnify an Unseen God. God is not comparable to anything.
When he saw the sun rising in splendor, he said: "This is my Lord; this is greater (akbar)." But when the sun set, he said: "O my people! I am indeed free from your (guilt) of giving partners to Allah. (Surah 6:78)
Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not nor is He begotten; and there is none like unto Him. (Surah 112)
Other than being called AlKabir in the Quran God is also described as kabir but that does not undermine His attributes as He is still incomparable when He is great or greatest but not the word “akbar” Him being greater. One does not call God as the greater but He is the Great or the Greatest.
The following verse shows that Allah is kabir not akbar when obeying the command to magnify Him and to call upon Him.
As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, Great (kabiran)
(Surah 4:34)
The claim that Allahu Akbar is Quranic in every aspect and is the way the Salat was passed to us from Abraham all the way down and including the correction made by the messenger of the covenant to our Salat can be questioned.
The command to call upon God in the Salat and battle cry to magnify Him
Since Allahu Akbar is not a name or battle cry to be found in the Quran it is therefore not the way the Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) call upon Him in the salat or proclaim as his battle cry. The Prophet takbir or to magnify God is obeying the command of God which is stated in the following verse of the Quran:
Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon AlRahman: by whatever name ye call upon Him, (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Neither speaks thy prayer aloud, nor speaks it in a low tone, but seek a middle course between."  (Surah 17:110)   
The Most Beautiful names of God are those listed in the Quran because these are names which He authorized. Those not found in the Quran were names invented and He gave warning that the consequence will sanction His wrath:
The most beautiful names belong to Allah: so call on him by them; but shun such men as use profanity in his names: for what they do, they will soon be requited. (Surah 7:180)
He said: "Punishment and wrath have already come upon you from your Lord: dispute ye with me over names which ye have devised - ye and your fathers - without authority from Allah? Then wait: I am amongst you, also waiting." (Surah 7:71)
Thus the manner to magnify Him for His greatness and glory as commanded in Surah 17:111 is to make Him the only Great or the Greatest not greater as the examples shown in the Quran in the following verses:
He knoweth the unseen and that which is open: He is the Great (AlKabiru), the Most High. (AlMutaa’l) (Surah 13:9)
"This is because, when Allah was invoked as the Only (object of worship), ye did reject Faith, but when partners were joined to Him, ye believed! The Command is with Allah, Most High (Al’aliyi), Most Great!" (AlKabiri) (Surah 40:12)

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

There is only one obligatory Salat name in the Quran not Three Names.

The Obligatory Salat
A lot of people did not realize that the obligatory salat in the Quran must take the definite article “Al” or “The” in English. God wish to show that whenever He commanded to establish the obligatory Salat there is always the “Al” in front of the word Salat otherwise it takes a different meaning. Some examples of the command to establish the obligatory Salat in the Quran as stated below:
Who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer (Al Salat), and spend out of what We have provided for them; (Surah 2:3)
And be steadfast in prayer (Al Salat); practice regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship). (Surah 2:43)
And be steadfast in prayer (Al Salat) and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah: for Allah sees Well all that ye do. (Surah 2:110)
O ye who believe! Seek help with patient perseverance and prayer (Al Salat); for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. (Surah 2:153)
The obligatory Al Salat is special that whenever there is command to establish this Al Salat it must come together with the ablution whereas the word salat without the “Al” does not carry this obligation:
O ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer (Al Salat), wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favor to you, that ye may be grateful. (Surah 5:6)
Enjoin prayer (Bi Al Salat) on thy people, and be constant therein. We ask thee not to provide sustenance: We provide it for thee. But the (fruit of) the Hereafter is for righteousness. (Surah 20:132)
And establish regular prayers (Al Salat) at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night: For those things, that are good remove those that are evil: Be that the word of remembrance to those who remember (their Lord): (Surah 11:114)
O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer (Li Al Salat) on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew! (Surah 62:9)
Some examples of the words salat without the “Al” do not fall into the category of the obligatory Al Salat. The word takes some other meanings or without the “Al” it means just ordinary supplication:
They are those on whom (Descend) blessings (salawatun) from Allah, and Mercy, and they are the ones that receive guidance. (Surah 2:157)
And this is a Book which We have sent down, bringing blessings, and confirming (the revelations) which came before it: that thou mayest warn the mother of cities and all around her. Those who believe in the hereafter believe in this (Book), and they are constant in guarding their prayers (salat). (Surah 6:92)
Say: "Truly, my prayer (salati) and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds: (Surah 6:162)
Their prayer (salat) at the House (of Allah) is nothing but whistling and clapping of hands: (Its only answer can be), "Taste ye the penalty because ye blasphemed." (Surah 8:35)
But some of the desert Arabs believe in Allah and the Last Day, and look on their payments as pious gifts bringing them nearer to Allah and obtaining the prayers (salawati) of the Messenger. Aye, indeed they bring them nearer (to Him): soon will Allah admit them to His Mercy: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surah 9:99)
They said: "O Shu'aib! Does thy prayer (salaa) command thee that we leave off the worship which our fathers practised, or that we leave off doing what we like with our property? Truly, thou art the one that forbeareth with faults and is right-minded!" (Surah 11:87)
(They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues (salawaatun), and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (Surah 22:40)
Those who humble themselves in their prayers/supplication;(salawa) (Surah 23:2); And who (strictly) guard their prayers/supplication; (salawa) (Surah 23;9)
Seest thou not that it is Allah Whose praises all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate, and the birds (of the air) with wings outspread? Each one knows its own (mode of) commitment (salaa) and praise. And Allah knows well all that they do. (Surah 24:41)
As can be seen from the above verses of the Quran any salat without the word “Al” in front do not take the meaning of the daily obligatory salat which carries various features like taking ablution (Surah 5:6), to be done at specific times (Surah 4:103), understanding what one says (Surah 4:43) and other requirement as commanded by Allah in the Quran.
Some examples of prayer done without the necessary ablution if there no “Al” in front of the word salaa:
So he gave nothing in charity, nor did he pray! (Salla) (Surah 75:31)
And glorify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their hearts) in prayer. (salla) (Surah 85:15)
A votary when he (turns) to pray? (Salla) (Surah 96:10)
Also included without the “Al” in front of the word Salat is The dawn supplication (Salati Fajri) and the night supplication (Salati Ishaa) as stated in the Surah 24:58
As has been indicated in the Quran there is no “Al” in front of the words salati fajri and salati ishaa in the Surah 24:58, this means that the word “salaa” do not refer to the daily obligatory Salat or does it refers to the name of the obligatory dawn salat or early night salat:
O ye who believe! let those whom your right hands possess, and the (children) among you who have not come of age ask your permission (before they come to your presence), on three occasions: before morning prayer/supplication (salat fajri); the while ye doff your clothes for the noonday heat; and after the night prayer/supplication (salatil ishaa): these are your three times of undress: outside those times it is not wrong for you or for them to move about attending to each other: Thus does Allah make clear the Signs to you: for Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. (Surah 24:58)
As can be seen from the above there is no mentioned to establish the salat in the above verse instead there is the command for the children to ask permission before going into the room of the elders at the three times of privacy. The mentioning of the salat in this verse is without the “Al” and thus it is not the obligatory salat being mentioned but supplication or “dua” that is done without the obligatory ablution. Nevertheless for reference on the command to establish the obligatory salat at dawn and early night they are mentioned at Surah 11:114 as here there is the definite article “Al” or “The” mentioned in front of the word Salat. Thus the word “Salatil Fajri and “Salatil Ishaa” in Surah 24:58 do not specially refer to the obligatory prayer in that verse but is being mentioned elsewhere. The two words is therefore not the name of salat as being propagated by some quarters but it refer to other deeds also done in the morning and in the early night.
The prayer being mentioned by name is only the Middle Prayer or AsSalatil AlWusta” as stated in the following verse of the Quran:
Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers (Al Salawaat) and the Middle Prayer (AlSalati AlWusta); and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind). (Surah 2:238)
The word AlSalatil AlWusta” has the Arabic “Al” or “The” in front of the word salat and this conform with all the word AlSalat when God refer it to be the obligatory prayers all over in the Quran. Thus this is the only name of Salat mentioned in the Quran and the rest does not refer to be obligatory but form of other supplication as an example in the Surah 9:103 invoked by the Prophet to motivate his followers by his “dua” is not the obligatory salat because the word is without the definite article “the”.
With the above reasoning the argument put forward that there are three names of salat in the Quran is inaccurate and it cannot be used to proof that God commanded only three obligatory Salat instead of five as the name of Salat being mentioned is only one at Surah 2:238 and the meaning of AlSalatil AlWusta is the Middle Prayer and this prayer as its name indicated is the middle prayer among all the daily obligatory prayers and stand in the middle in term of time between its two adjoining prayers which the Noon prayer (Surah 17:78) and end of the day prayer or sunset as stated in Surah 11:114. It is without doubt that the obligatory Salat is commanded base on times stated and not on names of Salat.

Mr Munir AlHaq put a claim as follows:
For understanding the Quran you must first learn Quranic Arabic grammar.

The word Al has very established rules. You cannot have Al in a possession construct so you cannot have Al in صَلَوْةِ اْلْفَجْرِ

Hence your argument is invalid. According to these ayats, there are only THREE names of al-Salat in the Quran: Fajar, Isha and Wusta.

Asar’s reply

But why Allah has possession construct in AlWusta Salat with the Al in front of the word Salat at Surah 2:238 to be a name of the obligatory Salat? To say that the Wusta prayer has the “Al” in front but not necessary for the fajr and Ishaa prayers is contradicting the Quran. All must have the “Al” to be a name of Salat and with the “Al” it is also to indicate that it is referring to the obligatory daily prayers.
Further example can be shown by Surah 62:9 the AlSalat there is not a name “Friday Prayer” because there is no “Al” in front of the word ‘Yaumin” or “day” for it to be a specific day Friday:

AsSalati min yauwmil Aljumaati (لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ  )  means AlSalat from a day of gathering is not a name of Salat as normally called “Friday Prayer” but if it is
As Salati Alyauwmil AlJumaah then it means Friday prayer because there is the “Al” in front of all the word Salat, Day and Gathering for it to be a name of Salat.

Furthermore In Surah 62:9 the Salat there is not a name of Salat as God do not restrict this Salat only to Friday thus it is not a name of a specific day or a specific Salat name. It can be perform on Saturday or Sunday as the Jews or the Christian is doing for their gathering. Similarly the fajr and the Ishaa salat is not a name of the obligatory salat because there is no “Al” or “the” to make the word specific to refer as the obligatory dawn and night Salat compared to the AlSalati AlWusta in Surah 2:238.